ID CVE-2008-1367
Summary gcc 4.3.x does not generate a cld instruction while compiling functions used for string manipulation such as memcpy and memmove on x86 and i386, which can prevent the direction flag (DF) from being reset in violation of ABI conventions and cause data to be copied in the wrong direction during signal handling in the Linux kernel, which might allow context-dependent attackers to trigger memory corruption. NOTE: this issue was originally reported for CPU consumption in SBCL.
References
Vulnerable Configurations
  • cpe:2.3:a:gnu:gcc:4.3
    cpe:2.3:a:gnu:gcc:4.3
CVSS
Base: 7.5 (as of 18-03-2008 - 11:35)
Impact:
Exploitability:
CWE CWE-399
CAPEC
Access
VectorComplexityAuthentication
NETWORK LOW NONE
Impact
ConfidentialityIntegrityAvailability
PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL
nessus via4
  • NASL family Oracle Linux Local Security Checks
    NASL id ORACLELINUX_ELSA-2008-0508.NASL
    description From Red Hat Security Advisory 2008:0508 : Updated kernel packages that fix several security issues and a bug are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * A security flaw was found in the Linux kernel memory copy routines, when running on certain AMD64 systems. If an unsuccessful attempt to copy kernel memory from source to destination memory locations occurred, the copy routines did not zero the content at the destination memory location. This could allow a local unprivileged user to view potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-2729, Important) * Alexey Dobriyan discovered a race condition in the Linux kernel process-tracing system call, ptrace. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service (kernel hang). (CVE-2008-2365, Important) * Tavis Ormandy discovered a deficiency in the Linux kernel 32-bit and 64-bit emulation. This could allow a local unprivileged user to prepare and run a specially crafted binary, which would use this deficiency to leak uninitialized and potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-0598, Important) * It was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bug : * On systems with a large number of CPUs (more than 16), multiple applications calling the 'times()' system call may have caused a system hang. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-07-18
    plugin id 67703
    published 2013-07-12
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=67703
    title Oracle Linux 4 : kernel (ELSA-2008-0508)
  • NASL family Red Hat Local Security Checks
    NASL id REDHAT-RHSA-2008-0508.NASL
    description Updated kernel packages that fix several security issues and a bug are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * A security flaw was found in the Linux kernel memory copy routines, when running on certain AMD64 systems. If an unsuccessful attempt to copy kernel memory from source to destination memory locations occurred, the copy routines did not zero the content at the destination memory location. This could allow a local unprivileged user to view potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-2729, Important) * Alexey Dobriyan discovered a race condition in the Linux kernel process-tracing system call, ptrace. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service (kernel hang). (CVE-2008-2365, Important) * Tavis Ormandy discovered a deficiency in the Linux kernel 32-bit and 64-bit emulation. This could allow a local unprivileged user to prepare and run a specially crafted binary, which would use this deficiency to leak uninitialized and potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-0598, Important) * It was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bug : * On systems with a large number of CPUs (more than 16), multiple applications calling the 'times()' system call may have caused a system hang. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-11-27
    plugin id 33376
    published 2008-07-02
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=33376
    title RHEL 4 : kernel (RHSA-2008:0508)
  • NASL family Scientific Linux Local Security Checks
    NASL id SL_20080625_KERNEL_ON_SL4_X.NASL
    description These updated packages fix the following security issues : - A security flaw was found in the Linux kernel memory copy routines, when running on certain AMD64 systems. If an unsuccessful attempt to copy kernel memory from source to destination memory locations occurred, the copy routines did not zero the content at the destination memory location. This could allow a local unprivileged user to view potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-2729, Important) - Alexey Dobriyan discovered a race condition in the Linux kernel process-tracing system call, ptrace. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service (kernel hang). (CVE-2008-2365, Important) - Tavis Ormandy discovered a deficiency in the Linux kernel 32-bit and 64-bit emulation. This could allow a local unprivileged user to prepare and run a specially crafted binary, which would use this deficiency to leak uninitialized and potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-0598, Important) - It was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bug : - On systems with a large number of CPUs (more than 16), multiple applications calling the 'times()' system call may have caused a system hang.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2019-01-07
    plugin id 60429
    published 2012-08-01
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=60429
    title Scientific Linux Security Update : kernel on SL4.x i386/x86_64
  • NASL family CentOS Local Security Checks
    NASL id CENTOS_RHSA-2008-0508.NASL
    description Updated kernel packages that fix several security issues and a bug are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * A security flaw was found in the Linux kernel memory copy routines, when running on certain AMD64 systems. If an unsuccessful attempt to copy kernel memory from source to destination memory locations occurred, the copy routines did not zero the content at the destination memory location. This could allow a local unprivileged user to view potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-2729, Important) * Alexey Dobriyan discovered a race condition in the Linux kernel process-tracing system call, ptrace. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service (kernel hang). (CVE-2008-2365, Important) * Tavis Ormandy discovered a deficiency in the Linux kernel 32-bit and 64-bit emulation. This could allow a local unprivileged user to prepare and run a specially crafted binary, which would use this deficiency to leak uninitialized and potentially sensitive data. (CVE-2008-0598, Important) * It was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bug : * On systems with a large number of CPUs (more than 16), multiple applications calling the 'times()' system call may have caused a system hang. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-11-10
    plugin id 33365
    published 2008-07-02
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=33365
    title CentOS 4 : kernel (CESA-2008:0508)
  • NASL family Red Hat Local Security Checks
    NASL id REDHAT-RHSA-2008-0211.NASL
    description Updated kernel packages that fix various security issues and several bugs are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) Red Hat would like to thank Nick Piggin for responsibly disclosing the following issue : * when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) * a flaw was found when performing asynchronous input or output operations on a FIFO special file. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a kernel panic. (CVE-2007-5001, Important) * a flaw was found in the way core dump files were created. If a local user could get a root-owned process to dump a core file into a directory, which the user has write access to, they could gain read access to that core file. This could potentially grant unauthorized access to sensitive information. (CVE-2007-6206, Moderate) * a buffer overflow was found in the Linux kernel ISDN subsystem. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-6151, Moderate) * a race condition found in the mincore system core could allow a local user to cause a denial of service (system hang). (CVE-2006-4814, Moderate) * it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : * a bug, which caused long delays when unmounting mounts containing a large number of unused dentries, has been resolved. * in the previous kernel packages, the kernel was unable to handle certain floating point instructions on Itanium(R) architectures. * on certain Intel CPUs, the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) was not flushed correctly, which caused machine check errors. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-11-27
    plugin id 32160
    published 2008-05-09
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=32160
    title RHEL 3 : kernel (RHSA-2008:0211)
  • NASL family SuSE Local Security Checks
    NASL id SUSE_KERNEL-5336.NASL
    description This kernel update fixes the following security problems : CVE-2008-1615: On x86_64 a denial of service attack could be used by local attackers to immediately panic / crash the machine. CVE-2008-2358: A security problem in DCCP was fixed, which could be used by remote attackers to crash the machine. CVE-2007-6206: An information leakage during coredumping of root processes was fixed. CVE-2007-6712: A integer overflow in the hrtimer_forward function (hrtimer.c) in Linux kernel, when running on 64-bit systems, allows local users to cause a denial of service (infinite loop) via a timer with a large expiry value, which causes the timer to always be expired. CVE-2008-2136: A problem in SIT IPv6 tunnel handling could be used by remote attackers to immediately crash the machine. CVE-2008-1669: Fixed a SMP ordering problem in fcntl_setlk could potentially allow local attackers to execute code by timing file locking. CVE-2008-1367: Clear the 'direction' flag before calling signal handlers. For specific not yet identified programs under specific timing conditions this could potentially have caused memory corruption or code execution. CVE-2008-1375: Fixed a dnotify race condition, which could be used by local attackers to potentially execute code. CVE-2007-6282: A remote attacker could crash the IPSec/IPv6 stack by sending a bad ESP packet. This requires the host to be able to receive such packets (default filtered by the firewall). CVE-2007-5500: A ptrace bug could be used by local attackers to hang their own processes indefinitely. CVE-2007-5904: A remote buffer overflow in CIFS was fixed which could be used by remote attackers to crash the machine or potentially execute code. And the following bugs (numbers are https://bugzilla.novell.com/ references) : - patches.arch/x86-nosmp-implies-noapic.patch: When booting with nosmp or maxcpus=0 on i386 or x86-64, we must disable the I/O APIC, otherwise the system won't boot in most cases (bnc#308540). - patches.arch/i386-at-sysinfo-ehdr: i386: make AT_SYSINFO_EHDR consistent with AT_SYSINFO (bnc#289641). - patches.suse/bonding-workqueue: Update to fix a hang when closing a bonding device (342994). - patches.fixes/mptspi-dv-renegotiate-oops: mptlinux crashes on kernel 2.6.22 (bnc#271749).
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-07-19
    plugin id 33252
    published 2008-06-24
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=33252
    title openSUSE 10 Security Update : kernel (kernel-5336)
  • NASL family CentOS Local Security Checks
    NASL id CENTOS_RHSA-2008-0211.NASL
    description Updated kernel packages that fix various security issues and several bugs are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) Red Hat would like to thank Nick Piggin for responsibly disclosing the following issue : * when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) * a flaw was found when performing asynchronous input or output operations on a FIFO special file. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a kernel panic. (CVE-2007-5001, Important) * a flaw was found in the way core dump files were created. If a local user could get a root-owned process to dump a core file into a directory, which the user has write access to, they could gain read access to that core file. This could potentially grant unauthorized access to sensitive information. (CVE-2007-6206, Moderate) * a buffer overflow was found in the Linux kernel ISDN subsystem. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-6151, Moderate) * a race condition found in the mincore system core could allow a local user to cause a denial of service (system hang). (CVE-2006-4814, Moderate) * it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : * a bug, which caused long delays when unmounting mounts containing a large number of unused dentries, has been resolved. * in the previous kernel packages, the kernel was unable to handle certain floating point instructions on Itanium(R) architectures. * on certain Intel CPUs, the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) was not flushed correctly, which caused machine check errors. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-11-10
    plugin id 32139
    published 2008-05-09
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=32139
    title CentOS 3 : kernel (CESA-2008:0211)
  • NASL family Oracle Linux Local Security Checks
    NASL id ORACLELINUX_ELSA-2008-0211.NASL
    description From Red Hat Security Advisory 2008:0211 : Updated kernel packages that fix various security issues and several bugs are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) Red Hat would like to thank Nick Piggin for responsibly disclosing the following issue : * when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) * a flaw was found when performing asynchronous input or output operations on a FIFO special file. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a kernel panic. (CVE-2007-5001, Important) * a flaw was found in the way core dump files were created. If a local user could get a root-owned process to dump a core file into a directory, which the user has write access to, they could gain read access to that core file. This could potentially grant unauthorized access to sensitive information. (CVE-2007-6206, Moderate) * a buffer overflow was found in the Linux kernel ISDN subsystem. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-6151, Moderate) * a race condition found in the mincore system core could allow a local user to cause a denial of service (system hang). (CVE-2006-4814, Moderate) * it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : * a bug, which caused long delays when unmounting mounts containing a large number of unused dentries, has been resolved. * in the previous kernel packages, the kernel was unable to handle certain floating point instructions on Itanium(R) architectures. * on certain Intel CPUs, the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) was not flushed correctly, which caused machine check errors. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-07-18
    plugin id 67678
    published 2013-07-12
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=67678
    title Oracle Linux 3 : kernel (ELSA-2008-0211)
  • NASL family Scientific Linux Local Security Checks
    NASL id SL_20080507_KERNEL_ON_SL3_X.NASL
    description These updated packages fix the following security issues : - the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) - the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) - when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) - a flaw was found when performing asynchronous input or output operations on a FIFO special file. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a kernel panic. (CVE-2007-5001, Important) - a flaw was found in the way core dump files were created. If a local user could get a root-owned process to dump a core file into a directory, which the user has write access to, they could gain read access to that core file. This could potentially grant unauthorized access to sensitive information. (CVE-2007-6206, Moderate) - a buffer overflow was found in the Linux kernel ISDN subsystem. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-6151, Moderate) - a race condition found in the mincore system core could allow a local user to cause a denial of service (system hang). (CVE-2006-4814, Moderate) - it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : - a bug, which caused long delays when unmounting mounts containing a large number of unused dentries, has been resolved. - in the previous kernel packages, the kernel was unable to handle certain floating point instructions on Itanium(R) architectures. - on certain Intel CPUs, the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) was not flushed correctly, which caused machine check errors.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2019-01-07
    plugin id 60393
    published 2012-08-01
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=60393
    title Scientific Linux Security Update : kernel on SL3.x i386/x86_64
  • NASL family Scientific Linux Local Security Checks
    NASL id SL_20080507_KERNEL_ON_SL5_X.NASL
    description These updated packages fix the following security issues : - the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) - a possible hypervisor panic was found in the Linux kernel. A privileged user of a fully virtualized guest could initiate a stress-test File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfer between the guest and the hypervisor, possibly leading to hypervisor panic. (CVE-2008-1619, Important) - the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) - when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) - the absence of sanity-checks was found in the hypervisor block backend driver, when running 32-bit paravirtualized guests on a 64-bit host. The number of blocks to be processed per one request from guest to host, or vice-versa, was not checked for its maximum value, which could have allowed a local privileged user of the guest operating system to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-5498, Important) - it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : - on IBM System z architectures, when running QIOASSIST enabled QDIO devices in an IBM z/VM environment, the output queue stalled under heavy load. This caused network performance to degrade, possibly causing network hangs and outages. - multiple buffer overflows were discovered in the neofb video driver. It was not possible for an unprivileged user to exploit these issues, and as such, they have not been handled as security issues. - when running Microsoft Windows in a HVM, a bug in vmalloc/vfree caused network performance to degrade. - on certain architectures, a bug in the libATA sata_nv driver may have caused infinite reboots, and an 'ata1: CPB flags CMD err flags 0x11' error. - repeatedly hot-plugging a PCI Express card may have caused 'Bad DLLP' errors. - a NULL pointer dereference in NFS, which may have caused applications to crash, has been resolved. - when attempting to kexec reboot, either manually or via a panic-triggered kdump, the Unisys ES7000/one hanged after rebooting in the new kernel, after printing the 'Memory: 32839688k/33685504k available' line.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2019-01-07
    plugin id 60395
    published 2012-08-01
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=60395
    title Scientific Linux Security Update : kernel on SL5.x i386/x86_64
  • NASL family CentOS Local Security Checks
    NASL id CENTOS_RHSA-2008-0233.NASL
    description Updated kernel packages that fix various security issues and several bugs are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) * a possible hypervisor panic was found in the Linux kernel. A privileged user of a fully virtualized guest could initiate a stress-test File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfer between the guest and the hypervisor, possibly leading to hypervisor panic. (CVE-2008-1619, Important) * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) Red Hat would like to thank Nick Piggin for responsibly disclosing the following issue : * when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) * the absence of sanity-checks was found in the hypervisor block backend driver, when running 32-bit paravirtualized guests on a 64-bit host. The number of blocks to be processed per one request from guest to host, or vice-versa, was not checked for its maximum value, which could have allowed a local privileged user of the guest operating system to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-5498, Important) * it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : * on IBM System z architectures, when running QIOASSIST enabled QDIO devices in an IBM z/VM environment, the output queue stalled under heavy load. This caused network performance to degrade, possibly causing network hangs and outages. * multiple buffer overflows were discovered in the neofb video driver. It was not possible for an unprivileged user to exploit these issues, and as such, they have not been handled as security issues. * when running Microsoft Windows in a HVM, a bug in vmalloc/vfree caused network performance to degrade. * on certain architectures, a bug in the libATA sata_nv driver may have caused infinite reboots, and an 'ata1: CPB flags CMD err flags 0x11' error. * repeatedly hot-plugging a PCI Express card may have caused 'Bad DLLP' errors. * a NULL pointer dereference in NFS, which may have caused applications to crash, has been resolved. * when attempting to kexec reboot, either manually or via a panic-triggered kdump, the Unisys ES7000/one hanged after rebooting in the new kernel, after printing the 'Memory: 32839688k/33685504k available' line. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-11-10
    plugin id 43681
    published 2010-01-06
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=43681
    title CentOS 5 : kernel (CESA-2008:0233)
  • NASL family SuSE Local Security Checks
    NASL id SUSE_KERNEL-5370.NASL
    description This kernel update fixes quite a number of security problems : - A remote attacker could crash the IPSec/IPv6 stack by sending a bad ESP packet. This requires the host to be able to receive such packets (default filtered by the firewall). (CVE-2007-6282) - A problem in SIT IPv6 tunnel handling could be used by remote attackers to immediately crash the machine. (CVE-2008-2136) - On x86_64 a denial of service attack could be used by local attackers to immediately panic / crash the machine. (CVE-2008-1615) - An information leakage during coredumping of root processes was fixed. (CVE-2007-6206) - Fixed a SMP ordering problem in fcntl_setlk could potentially allow local attackers to execute code by timing file locking. (CVE-2008-1669) - Fixed a dnotify race condition, which could be used by local attackers to potentially execute code. (CVE-2008-1375) - A ptrace bug could be used by local attackers to hang their own processes indefinitely. (CVE-2007-5500) - Clear the 'direction' flag before calling signal handlers. For specific not yet identified programs under specific timing conditions this could potentially have caused memory corruption or code execution. (CVE-2008-1367) - The isdn_ioctl function in isdn_common.c allowed local users to cause a denial of service via a crafted ioctl struct in which ioctls is not null terminated, which triggers a buffer overflow. (CVE-2007-6151) Non security related changes : OCFS2 was updated to version v1.2.9-1-r3100. Also a huge number of bugs were fixed. Please refer to the RPM changelog for a detailed list.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2016-12-22
    plugin id 59128
    published 2012-05-17
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=59128
    title SuSE 10 Security Update : Linux kernel (ZYPP Patch Number 5370)
  • NASL family SuSE Local Security Checks
    NASL id SUSE_KERNEL-5339.NASL
    description This kernel update fixes the following security problems: CVE-2008-2136: A problem in SIT IPv6 tunnel handling could be used by remote attackers to immediately crash the machine. CVE-2008-1615: On x86_64 a denial of service attack could be used by local attackers to immediately panic / crash the machine. CVE-2008-2148: The permission checking in sys_utimensat was incorrect and local attackers could change the filetimes of files they do not own to the current time. CVE-2008-1669: Fixed a SMP ordering problem in fcntl_setlk could potentially allow local attackers to execute code by timing file locking. CVE-2008-1375: Fixed a dnotify race condition, which could be used by local attackers to potentially execute code. CVE-2007-6282: A remote attacker could crash the IPSec/IPv6 stack by sending a bad ESP packet. This requires the host to be able to receive such packets (default filtered by the firewall). CVE-2008-1367: Clear the 'direction' flag before calling signal handlers. For specific not yet identified programs under specific timing conditions this could potentially have caused memory corruption or code execution. And the following bugs (numbers are https://bugzilla.novell.com/ references) : - patches.fixes/input-add-amilo-pro-v-to-nomux.patch: Update the patch to include also 2030 model to nomux list (bnc#389169). - patches.apparmor/fix-net.diff: AppArmor: fix Oops in apparmor_socket_getpeersec_dgram() (bnc#378608). - patches.fixes/input-alps-update.patch: Input: fix the AlpsPS2 driver (bnc#357881). - patches.arch/cpufreq_fix_acpi_driver_on_BIOS_changes.patch: CPUFREQ: Check against freq changes from the BIOS (334378). - patches.fixes/ieee1394-limit-early-node-speed-to-host-interf ace-speed: ieee1394: limit early node speed to host interface speed (381304). - patches.fixes/forcedeth_realtec_phy_fix: Fix a regression to the GA kernel for some forcedeth cards (bnc#379478) - pci-revert-SMBus-unhide-on-nx6110.patch: Do not unhide the SMBus on the HP Compaq nx6110, it's unsafe. - patches.drivers/e1000-disable-l1aspm.patch: Disable L1 ASPM power savings for 82573 mobile variants, it's broken (bnc#254713, LTC34077). - patches.drivers/libata-improve-hpa-error-handling: libata: improve HPA error handling (365534). - rpm/kernel-binary.spec.in: Added Conflicts: libc.so.6()(64bit) to i386 arch (364433). - patches.drivers/libata-disallow-sysfs-read-access-to-force-p aram: libata: don't allow sysfs read access to force param (362599). - patches.suse/bonding-workqueue: Update to fix a hang when closing a bonding device (342994). - patches.fixes/mptspi-dv-renegotiate-oops: mptlinux crashes on kernel 2.6.22 (bnc#271749). - patches.drivers/usb-update-sierra-and-option-device-ids-from -2.6.25-rc3.patch: USB: update sierra and option device ids from 2.6.25-rc3 (343167). - patches.arch/x86-nvidia-timer-quirk: Disable again (#302327) The PCI ID lists are not complete enough and let's have the same crap as mainline for this for now. - patches.fixes/input-add-lenovo-3000-n100-to-nomux.patch: Input: add Lenovo 3000 N100 to nomux blacklist (bnc#284013). - patches.suse/bonding-bh-locking: Add missing chunks. The SLES10 SP1 version of the patch was updated in May 2007 but the openSuse 10.3 version was forgotten (260069). - patches.fixes/knfsd-Allow-NFSv2-3-WRITE-calls-to-succeed-whe n-krb.patch: knfsd: Allow NFSv2/3 WRITE calls to succeed when krb5i etc is used. (348737). - patches.fixes/md-fix-an-occasional-deadlock-in-raid5.patch: md: fix an occasional deadlock in raid5 (357088). - patches.drivers/libata-quirk_amd_ide_mode: PCI: modify SATA IDE mode quirk (345124). - Fix section mismatch build failure w/ gcc 4.1.2. bug #361086. - patches.drivers/libata-implement-force-parameter: libata: implement libata.force module parameter (337610). Lots of XEN Fixes (not detailed listed). Lots of RT Fixes (not detailed listed). - Update to 2.6.22.18 - removes upstreamed patch : - patches.fixes/vmsplice-pipe-exploit (CVE-2008-0600)
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2016-12-22
    plugin id 33253
    published 2008-06-24
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=33253
    title openSUSE 10 Security Update : kernel (kernel-5339)
  • NASL family VMware ESX Local Security Checks
    NASL id VMWARE_VMSA-2008-0011.NASL
    description I Service Console rpm updates a. Security Update to Service Console Kernel This fix upgrades service console kernel version to 2.4.21-57.EL. The Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures project (cve.mitre.org) has assigned the names CVE-2007-5001, CVE-2007-6151, CVE-2007-6206, CVE-2008-0007, CVE-2008-1367, CVE-2008-1375, CVE-2006-4814, and CVE-2008-1669 to the security issues fixed in kernel-2.4.21-57.EL. b. Samba Security Update This fix upgrades the service console rpm samba to version 3.0.9-1.3E.15vmw The Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures project (cve.mitre.org) has assigned the name CVE-2008-1105 to this issue.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-08-06
    plugin id 40380
    published 2009-07-27
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=40380
    title VMSA-2008-0011 : Updated ESX service console packages for Samba and vmnix
  • NASL family Red Hat Local Security Checks
    NASL id REDHAT-RHSA-2008-0233.NASL
    description Updated kernel packages that fix various security issues and several bugs are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) * a possible hypervisor panic was found in the Linux kernel. A privileged user of a fully virtualized guest could initiate a stress-test File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfer between the guest and the hypervisor, possibly leading to hypervisor panic. (CVE-2008-1619, Important) * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) Red Hat would like to thank Nick Piggin for responsibly disclosing the following issue : * when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) * the absence of sanity-checks was found in the hypervisor block backend driver, when running 32-bit paravirtualized guests on a 64-bit host. The number of blocks to be processed per one request from guest to host, or vice-versa, was not checked for its maximum value, which could have allowed a local privileged user of the guest operating system to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-5498, Important) * it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : * on IBM System z architectures, when running QIOASSIST enabled QDIO devices in an IBM z/VM environment, the output queue stalled under heavy load. This caused network performance to degrade, possibly causing network hangs and outages. * multiple buffer overflows were discovered in the neofb video driver. It was not possible for an unprivileged user to exploit these issues, and as such, they have not been handled as security issues. * when running Microsoft Windows in a HVM, a bug in vmalloc/vfree caused network performance to degrade. * on certain architectures, a bug in the libATA sata_nv driver may have caused infinite reboots, and an 'ata1: CPB flags CMD err flags 0x11' error. * repeatedly hot-plugging a PCI Express card may have caused 'Bad DLLP' errors. * a NULL pointer dereference in NFS, which may have caused applications to crash, has been resolved. * when attempting to kexec reboot, either manually or via a panic-triggered kdump, the Unisys ES7000/one hanged after rebooting in the new kernel, after printing the 'Memory: 32839688k/33685504k available' line. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-11-27
    plugin id 32161
    published 2008-05-09
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=32161
    title RHEL 5 : kernel (RHSA-2008:0233)
  • NASL family SuSE Local Security Checks
    NASL id SUSE_KERNEL-5375.NASL
    description This kernel update fixes quite a number of security problems : - A remote attacker could crash the IPSec/IPv6 stack by sending a bad ESP packet. This requires the host to be able to receive such packets (default filtered by the firewall). (CVE-2007-6282) - A problem in SIT IPv6 tunnel handling could be used by remote attackers to immediately crash the machine. (CVE-2008-2136) - On x86_64 a denial of service attack could be used by local attackers to immediately panic / crash the machine. (CVE-2008-1615) - An information leakage during coredumping of root processes was fixed. (CVE-2007-6206) - Fixed a SMP ordering problem in fcntl_setlk could potentially allow local attackers to execute code by timing file locking. (CVE-2008-1669) - Fixed a dnotify race condition, which could be used by local attackers to potentially execute code. (CVE-2008-1375) - A ptrace bug could be used by local attackers to hang their own processes indefinitely. (CVE-2007-5500) - Clear the 'direction' flag before calling signal handlers. For specific not yet identified programs under specific timing conditions this could potentially have caused memory corruption or code execution. (CVE-2008-1367) - The isdn_ioctl function in isdn_common.c allowed local users to cause a denial of service via a crafted ioctl struct in which ioctls is not null terminated, which triggers a buffer overflow. (CVE-2007-6151) Non security related changes : OCFS2 was updated to version v1.2.9-1-r3100. Also a huge number of bugs were fixed. Please refer to the RPM changelog for a detailed list.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2016-12-22
    plugin id 33432
    published 2008-07-08
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=33432
    title SuSE 10 Security Update : Linux kernel (ZYPP Patch Number 5375)
  • NASL family Oracle Linux Local Security Checks
    NASL id ORACLELINUX_ELSA-2008-0233.NASL
    description From Red Hat Security Advisory 2008:0233 : Updated kernel packages that fix various security issues and several bugs are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. This update has been rated as having important security impact by the Red Hat Security Response Team. The kernel packages contain the Linux kernel, the core of any Linux operating system. These updated packages fix the following security issues : * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code has been found in the Linux kernel open file descriptors control mechanism, fcntl. This could allow a local unprivileged user to simultaneously execute code, which would otherwise be protected against parallel execution. As well, a race condition when handling locks in the Linux kernel fcntl functionality, may have allowed a process belonging to a local unprivileged user to gain re-ordered access to the descriptor table. (CVE-2008-1669, Important) * a possible hypervisor panic was found in the Linux kernel. A privileged user of a fully virtualized guest could initiate a stress-test File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfer between the guest and the hypervisor, possibly leading to hypervisor panic. (CVE-2008-1619, Important) * the absence of a protection mechanism when attempting to access a critical section of code, as well as a race condition, have been found in the Linux kernel file system event notifier, dnotify. This could allow a local unprivileged user to get inconsistent data, or to send arbitrary signals to arbitrary system processes. (CVE-2008-1375, Important) Red Hat would like to thank Nick Piggin for responsibly disclosing the following issue : * when accessing kernel memory locations, certain Linux kernel drivers registering a fault handler did not perform required range checks. A local unprivileged user could use this flaw to gain read or write access to arbitrary kernel memory, or possibly cause a kernel crash. (CVE-2008-0007, Important) * the absence of sanity-checks was found in the hypervisor block backend driver, when running 32-bit paravirtualized guests on a 64-bit host. The number of blocks to be processed per one request from guest to host, or vice-versa, was not checked for its maximum value, which could have allowed a local privileged user of the guest operating system to cause a denial of service. (CVE-2007-5498, Important) * it was discovered that the Linux kernel handled string operations in the opposite way to the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). This could allow a local unprivileged user to cause memory corruption. (CVE-2008-1367, Low) As well, these updated packages fix the following bugs : * on IBM System z architectures, when running QIOASSIST enabled QDIO devices in an IBM z/VM environment, the output queue stalled under heavy load. This caused network performance to degrade, possibly causing network hangs and outages. * multiple buffer overflows were discovered in the neofb video driver. It was not possible for an unprivileged user to exploit these issues, and as such, they have not been handled as security issues. * when running Microsoft Windows in a HVM, a bug in vmalloc/vfree caused network performance to degrade. * on certain architectures, a bug in the libATA sata_nv driver may have caused infinite reboots, and an 'ata1: CPB flags CMD err flags 0x11' error. * repeatedly hot-plugging a PCI Express card may have caused 'Bad DLLP' errors. * a NULL pointer dereference in NFS, which may have caused applications to crash, has been resolved. * when attempting to kexec reboot, either manually or via a panic-triggered kdump, the Unisys ES7000/one hanged after rebooting in the new kernel, after printing the 'Memory: 32839688k/33685504k available' line. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 users are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which contain backported patches to resolve these issues.
    last seen 2019-02-21
    modified 2018-07-18
    plugin id 67683
    published 2013-07-12
    reporter Tenable
    source https://www.tenable.com/plugins/index.php?view=single&id=67683
    title Oracle Linux 5 : kernel (ELSA-2008-0233)
oval via4
accepted 2013-04-29T04:11:33.596-04:00
class vulnerability
contributors
  • name Aharon Chernin
    organization SCAP.com, LLC
  • name Dragos Prisaca
    organization G2, Inc.
definition_extensions
  • comment The operating system installed on the system is Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:11782
  • comment CentOS Linux 3.x
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:16651
  • comment The operating system installed on the system is Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:11831
  • comment CentOS Linux 4.x
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:16636
  • comment Oracle Linux 4.x
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:15990
  • comment The operating system installed on the system is Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:11414
  • comment The operating system installed on the system is CentOS Linux 5.x
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:15802
  • comment Oracle Linux 5.x
    oval oval:org.mitre.oval:def:15459
description gcc 4.3.x does not generate a cld instruction while compiling functions used for string manipulation such as memcpy and memmove on x86 and i386, which can prevent the direction flag (DF) from being reset in violation of ABI conventions and cause data to be copied in the wrong direction during signal handling in the Linux kernel, which might allow context-dependent attackers to trigger memory corruption. NOTE: this issue was originally reported for CPU consumption in SBCL.
family unix
id oval:org.mitre.oval:def:11108
status accepted
submitted 2010-07-09T03:56:16-04:00
title gcc 4.3.x does not generate a cld instruction while compiling functions used for string manipulation such as memcpy and memmove on x86 and i386, which can prevent the direction flag (DF) from being reset in violation of ABI conventions and cause data to be copied in the wrong direction during signal handling in the Linux kernel, which might allow context-dependent attackers to trigger memory corruption. NOTE: this issue was originally reported for CPU consumption in SBCL.
version 24
redhat via4
advisories
  • rhsa
    id RHSA-2008:0211
  • rhsa
    id RHSA-2008:0233
  • rhsa
    id RHSA-2008:0508
rpms
  • kernel-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-BOOT-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-doc-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-hugemem-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-hugemem-unsupported-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-smp-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-smp-unsupported-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-source-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-unsupported-0:2.4.21-57.EL
  • kernel-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-PAE-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-PAE-devel-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-debug-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-debug-devel-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-devel-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-doc-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-headers-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-kdump-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-kdump-devel-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-xen-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-xen-devel-0:2.6.18-53.1.19.el5
  • kernel-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-devel-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-doc-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-hugemem-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-hugemem-devel-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-largesmp-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-largesmp-devel-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-smp-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-smp-devel-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-xenU-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
  • kernel-xenU-devel-0:2.6.9-67.0.20.EL
refmap via4
bid 29084
confirm
misc http://lwn.net/Articles/272048/#Comments
mlist
  • [Security-announce] 20080728 VMSA-2008-00011 Updated ESX service console packages for Samba and vmnix
  • [gcc-patches] 20080306 Re: [PATCH, i386]: Emit cld instruction when stringops are used
  • [gcc-patches] 20080306 [PATCH, i386]: Emit cld instruction when stringops are used
  • [gcc-patches] 20080307 Re: [PATCH, i386]: Emit cld instruction when stringops are used
  • [git-commits-head] 20080307 x86: clear DF before calling signal handler
  • [linux-kernel] 20080305 Linux doesn't follow x86/x86-64 ABI wrt direction flag
secunia
  • 30110
  • 30116
  • 30818
  • 30850
  • 30890
  • 30962
  • 31246
suse
  • SUSE-SA:2008:030
  • SUSE-SA:2008:031
  • SUSE-SA:2008:032
vupen ADV-2008-2222
xf gcc-cld-dos(41340)
Last major update 07-03-2011 - 22:06
Published 17-03-2008 - 19:44
Last modified 28-09-2017 - 21:30
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